WORLD AND INDONESIA FILM HISTORY

Movies are live-pictures, also often called movies. Films collectively are often called cinemas. Cinema itself comes from the word kinematic or motion.
The literal definition of film (cinema) is Cinemathographie which comes from Cinema + tho = phytos (light) + graphie = grhap (writing = image = image), so the meaning is to paint motion with light.
The definition of the film according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, namely:
• A membrane made of celluloid for a negative place from which a portrait is made, a place for a positive image to be made in the cinema.
• Scrolls a series of pictures taken of moving objects and finally the projection of the results of the image.
• Stories playing in theaters.

Films have many meanings, each of which means that they can be broadly described. The film is a social communication media that is formed from the combination of two senses, sight and hearing, which has a core or theme of a story that reveals a lot of social realities that occur around the environment where the film itself grows.
The film itself can also mean an industry, which prioritizes the existence and interest of stories that can get many people involved. Films are different from book stories or soap operas. Even though they both raise the essential value of a story, films have their own principles. Apart from the economic principle when viewed from an industrial perspective, the principle that distinguishes films from other stories is the principle of cinematography. The principle of cinematography cannot be combined with other principles because this principle is related to filmmaking. The principle of cinematography contains how to layout the camera as a shooting tool, how to layout properties in film, artistic layout, and various other filmmaking settings.
In 1250, a camera named OBSCURA was found. The years 1250-1895, is called the prehistoric period of the film because it is a time when there are discoveries caused by the great obsession of Europeans, for example, the creation of a device that can record motion (which until now is used to make a film).
The year 1895 is known as the year when cinema began, because on December 28, 1895, for the first time in the history of film, a feature film was shown in public. This film was made by the Lumiere brothers, Lumiere Louis (1864-1948), and Auguste (1862-1954), famous French inventors and pioneers of the film industry. The screening venue for the film is at the Grand Cafe on Boulevard des Capucines, Paris. About 30 people came paid to watch short films showing the life of French citizens.
Indeed, as early as 1885, the first motion picture had been produced, however, a film by the Lumiere brothers which is considered to be the first cinema film. The title of their film is “Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory.” The screening of this film at the Grand Cafe marked the birth of the film industry.
Thomas A. Edison also organized a cinema in New York on April 23, 1896. And although Max and Emil Skladanowsky first appeared in Berlin on November 1, 1895, it was the Lumiere brothers’ show that was internationally recognized. Then these films and cinemas were also held in England (February 1896), the Soviet Union (May 1896), Japan (1896-1897), Korea (1903), and Italy (1905).
Changes in the film industry can clearly be seen in the technology used. If at first, the film was a black and white image, silent and very fast, then it evolved to suit our visual system, in color and with all kinds of effects that make the film more dramatic and look more real.
An interesting issue to discuss in the film industry is its competition with television. To compete with television, films are produced with a wider screen, longer playtime, and more costs to produce better quality.